Dieffenbachia is a genus of tropical plants in the Family Araceae noted for their patterned leaves. Members of this genus are popular as houseplants because of their tolerance to shade. The Dieffenbachia is often referred to as the “King of Plants”.
The cells of the dieffenbachia plant contain needle-shaped calcium oxalate crystals called raphides. If a leaf is chewed, these crystals cause a burning sensation in the mouth and throat; swelling can occur along with a temporary inability to speak, and from this effect the plants are commonly called dumb cane (other names include Galatea and Leopard Lily). Chewing could result in death if swelling of the throat blocks the airway. Slaves were sometimes punished by having dieffenbachia put into their mouths.
Young children (at the age where they regularly put things into their mouths) are at risk of suffocation and death if they eat or chew on dieffenbachia leaves. Some cats eat houseplants and flowers; they are similarly at risk.
Dieffenbachias are easy houseplants that tolerate a wide range of conditions. They are popular in homes and offices for their colorful, large leaves.
The common name dumbcane results from a mouth numbing substance in the stem and leaves. Some people may get a skin rash from the plantâ€™s sap. This plant can be toxic if eaten.
Most dieffenbachias will grow from 3 to 6 feet tall and 1 to 3 feet wide. Individual leaves can be 18 inches long by 12 inches wide.
Dieffenbachia growth rate
Dieffenbachias will grow quickly in ideal conditions or barely at all if light is low.
Dieffenbachia ornamental features
Dieffenbachia is grown for its eye-catching leaves. Large, tropical-looking leaves in many shades of green are marked with spots, stripes, dots or colored veins.
In the home, plant diseases are very rarely a problem. Too much or too little water plus insects and mites are the main problems. Root rot usually results from a soil mix that does not drain quickly or overly frequent watering. Mealybugs and aphids suck plant juices and heavy infestations will coat the leaves of dieffenbachia with sticky honeydew.
Too much fertilizer can cause marginal leaf burn. If plants are lacking nutrients, they may yellow, produce smaller leaves and become stunted.
As a rule, indoor plants are rarely attacked by insects or disease. The rule applies to dieffenbachias as well. The main problems arise from too much or too little watering and because of some insects like aphids who could easily fly into your living room from your garden or balcony. Cleaning the leaves often, especially the underside of leaves, can effectively reduce the risk of such problems.
If the leaves turn yellow at the edges it is possible that you have over fertilized. If however the whole leaf turns yellow and wilts or if the new leaves get smaller and smaller in size, either the soil has become too poor or you over water. Low temperatures may also make leaves wilt but the plant will soon recover if the cold does not last for long.
If you need to repot and your plant can wait, do that in early spring. If your plant is young it would be advisable to repot each year in spring, using a pot that is 1 or 2 sizes bigger. As the plant matures you can repot less often, e.g. year after year or if due to size you cannot repot, remove as much soil as possible and replace it with new fresh soil.
Dumbcanes thrive when given bright filtered light in spring, summer and fall. Bright light, even direct sunlight, is best during winter. They will tolerate low light, but growth will be reduced.
Water thoroughly, then let soil dry to the touch to a depth of one inch. Dieffenbachias will grow well in most well-drained container soil mixes. They should be fed from March through September with a foliage houseplant fertilizer. Liquid-type fertilizers can be applied at half strength every two to four weeks, or you can use a time release fertilizer applied according to label directions.
Dieffenbachias enjoy normal warm household temperatures. Temperatures from 60 to 75 Â°F are ideal. Always protect dieffenbachias from cold and major changes in temperature.
As these plants mature, lower leaves naturally drop to reveal attractive, trunklike stems. If the stems become too long and bare, you can rejuvenate the plant simply by cutting the stems back to about 6 inches tall. The plant will regrow below the cut.
If repotting is necessary, do so in early spring. Propagation is by cane cuttings, stem tip cuttings or air layering done in spring or early summer.
‘Tropic Snow’ has wide-spreading, dark green leaves blotched in creamy white along the veins. It will tolerate lower light levels than most other dieffenbachias.
‘Camille’ is one of the best-known dieffenbachia cultivars. It has creamy yellow leaves bordered in rich green. Its full growth habit gives it a lush appearance. It is a bushy variety with few problems.
‘Compacta’ is more compact-growing than other varieties. Its cream colored leaves are brightly mottled with green, and it has a very full growth habit. It is perfect for areas of the home or office where space is limited.
‘Paradise’ has soft yellow leaves covered with green speckles that radiate out from the midribs. Paradise has a more upright habit than either ‘Camille’ or ‘Compacta’ and will mature at nearly twice the height.
‘Tiki’ is an upright variety that is one of the largest dieffenbachias at maturity. It tolerates low light levels. It has silver leaves mottled with green and white.
‘Rudolph Roehrs’ has creamy yellow leaves with white spots and dark green veins and margins.
‘Snow Queen’ has pale lemon to creamy gold leaves with white veins and dark green edges.
‘Hilo’ is a large-leafed type that has pointed leaves with prominent white veins.
Give your dieffenbachia a little care and its impressive foliage will fill your home for a long time.